. We therefore considered it a suitable candidate tool for use in patients with IBD in whom both the primary disease and its treatment might be expected to play a part in overall body image dissatisfaction. However, factor analysis revealed that these additional items formed a separate factor, reduced predictive ability when compared with the original scale and reduced internal reliability. Data from another scale, the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, were also collected in addition to demographic and clinical data. Thus, the final questionnaire included 9 items (Fig. Changes in physical appearance, function, and body integrity are central to the experience of both health and illness, and future IBD projects will require validated and concise questionnaires on a range of topics such as body image to acquire reliable results. Bowe WP, Doyle AK, Crerand CE, et al. buttocks 0 1 2 3 4, 4. Whistance RN, Gilbert R, Fayers P, et al. The Impact of Introducing Patient-Reported Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptoms via Electronic Survey on Clinic Visit Length, Patient and Provider Satisfaction, and the Environment Microbiome, Phenotype and Natural History of Children With Coexistent Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Celiac Disease, Association of Baseline Luminal Narrowing With Ileal Microbial Shifts and Gene Expression Programs and Subsequent Transmural Healing in Pediatric Crohn Disease, Medical Management Following Surgical Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from Cochrane Reviews, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000438246.68476.c4, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Body Image Dissatisfaction in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Body Image Dissatisfaction: Clinical Features, and Psychosocial Disability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Getting Personal: A Review of Sexual Functioning, Body Image, and Their Impact on Quality of Life in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of an Oral Dose of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate–Rich Polyphenon E in Patients With Mild to Moderate Ulcerative Colitis. Frequency of body image scale scores in 338 patients with IBD. As an example, 30% of patients answered “Not at all” to question 1, whereas 43%, 17%, and 10% answered “A little,” “Quite a lot,” and “Very much,” respectively. My forehead 1 2 3 4 5, 14. A higher score suggest better body image and a low score indicates a negative body image. The Factor analysis resulted in a single factor solution explaining 65% of the variance, indicating that the 9-item scale performed well on scale structure testing. (1994). This particular scale is closely compared with the Body Cathexis Scale. on a negative (−3) to positive (+3) continuum. 2001 Jan;37(2):189-97 (PubMed Abstract) each statement holds true in general. Between 28% and 70% of patients indicated some level of body image dissatisfaction to each question. Ask the person to choose the face that best describes how he is feeling. Patients completed a self-administered questionnaire that included a modified body image scale by Hopwood et al.14 This scale was designed as a brief self-report measure in conjunction with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group. Our aim was to assess and validate a body image scale specifically for use with patients with IBD. My hands 0 1 2 3 4, 13. Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS): State It was developed primarily for use in research trials, and has previously been found to be a valid and succinct measure of the impact of both disease and treatment on body image.14,15 We found it easy to administer, and patients seemed to find it simple and quick to use with only 3 of 341 patients who returned the questionnaire failing to complete the body image tool adequately. Divided by the three different factes, they found an average of 25 for Performance (range 7 to 35) and Social (range 7 to 35), and 20 on Appearance (range 6 to 30). The Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS) comprises images of computer generated bodies. Responsiveness has previously been demonstrated in the original development of the scale with a significant increase in the reporting of body image dissatisfaction after surgery,14 but responsiveness in patients with IBD will require a longitudinal study of patients either undergoing changes to their medical treatment or surgery. Body image is an important endpoint in quality of life evaluation since cancer treatment may result in major changes to patients' appearance from disfiguring surgery, late effects of radiotherapy or adverse effects of systemic treatment. Internal consistency of the baseline scores was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, with levels above 0.7 reflecting high levels of consistency. Introduction: Body image distortion (BID) is a risk factor, which can lead to eating disorders problems. Regression analysis indicated that body image was not associated with disease type and the scale is applicable to patients with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Version. The Reprints: Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland (e-mail: [email protected]). What is Body Image? It has been tested and validated on a broad range of cancer patients, and coverage has proved acceptable to both male and female patients with a range of body image concerns.14,15 The scale is not specific to any 1 disease and focuses on the effects of both disease and treatment on body image. The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. Body image was evaluated by using the Body Image Scale (BIS) , a ten-item scale with four possible responses: 0 (not at all), 1 (a little), 2 (quite a bit), and 3 (very much). Remember there are no right or wrong answers. Have you ever dieted? Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) carries a distinct psychosocial and a physical burden, but body image has not been formally assessed in patients with IBD, nor is there a validated body image questionnaire. My forehead 0 1 2 3 4, 14. Physical Appearance State and My hips 1 2 3 4 5, 5. Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately correlated with various trait measures of body image. We also added a number of questions to Hopwood's original scale during the content validation phase, specifically targeted towards patients with IBD. Body image disturbance questionnaire—Scoliosis Version: discriminant validity in AIS. Possible scores range from 1 to 9, and higher scores indicate more positive body image. Body Mass Index (BMI; kg weight/m2height) averaged 25.0 (SD= 4.1) for men and 24.7 (SD= 6.3) for women. My neck 1 2 3 4 5, 15. There is, of course, no right answer for any statement. Version. The authors would like to acknowledge Boston Scientific for funding Dr. Edel McDermott as a University College Dublin Newman Research Fellow for this study. My legs 0 1 2 3 4, 7. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was developed within a cognitive behavioral framework and focuses on the psychosocial impact of body image disturbance. Body esteem (BE) refers to self-evaluations of one's body or appearance. The Portuguese version of the body image scale (BIS)—psychometric properties in a sample of breast cancer patients, Assessment of body image in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer, Enhancing quality of life in medical populations: a vision for body image assessment and rehabilitation as standards of care. We found the modified Body Image Scale valid, quick, and simple to use and we anticipate that it may make a suitable component of future IBD clinical and research assessments. statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or Linear regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with body image dissatisfaction. . My lips 1 2 3 4 5, 11. Body image refers to a person's sense of their own physical appearance and to their perception of how others see them. Overall, 8 of the 9 questions achieved the recommended 30% response rate with question 7 achieving a 28% positive response rate. each statement and circle the number that best indicates the extent to which . This scale, one of the scales intended to measure state mindfulness, was created by Tanay and Bernstein in 2013 and has been cited in positive psychological research. Rating scale is recommended for persons age 3 years and older. El Ansari W, Clausen SV, Mabhala A, et al. Right Its 2-week test–retest was found to be 0.82 (Cash & Grasso, 2005). A better understanding of the appreciation for one’s body, the higher the prediction of behaviors that can become problematic in various populations. Three hundred eighty-seven patients attending ambulatory clinics in 1 of 2 medical centers, between July 2011 and November 2012, were invited to participate in the study. extent to which I look overweight 1 2 3 4 5, 2. My waist 1 2 3 4 5, 8. We found a close correlation between our modified 9-item scale and the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, thus establishing convergent validity. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) was designed to address the lack of state mindfulness measurements in psychological literature and is based on the MAAS (Brown & Ryan, 2003). Figure 4 shows the association between the modified Body Image Scale and the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. now, I feel anxious, tense, or nervous about: 1. The Body Image States Scale105. Second, the questionnaire needed to be appropriate for both patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and to consider the effects of treatment and disease. Item numbers 2, 3, and 5 are reverse scored. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for patients with symptomatic urachal remnants: an experience with 57 patients. This question biases dissatisfaction towards those who have undergone operation, since those not having had surgery necessarily score zero. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS My hands 1 2 3 4 5, 13. Demographic and Clinical Details of 338 IBD Study Patients. The Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale (COPS) The COPS is a self-report scale designed to screen for symptoms of BDD in cosmetic settings. From a clinical point of view, it would be helpful to identify patients with body image alterations who might benefit from simple or more complex psychological interventions. My wrists 1 2 3 4 5, 12. The Body Image States Scale (BISS) has six items that are used to assess and individual’s evaluative and affective body image state at a given moment in time (Cash, 2008). Body image dissatisfaction is commonly found in the general population.1 As an example, 62% of female and 38% of male European university students consider themselves “too fat.”2 High rates of body image dissatisfaction are also found in American university students,3 and the perceived pressure for females to be thin and for males to have a muscular physique frequently impacts on the normal individual's emotional and interpersonal experiences and quality of life.4,5. 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January 16, 2021